V. I. Lenin


Written on March 24-28
(April 6-10), 1906
Published in pamphlet form
in April 1906
by Nasha Mysl Publishers

Published according
to the pamphlet text

From V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, 4th English Edition,
Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1972

First printing 1962
Second printing 1965
Third printing 1972

Vol. 10, pp. 199-276.

Translated from the Russian
Edited by Andrew Rothstein

Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo,
 (May 1997)
(Corrected and Updated December 2001)

THE VICTORY OF THE CADETS AND THE TASKS OF THE WORK  ERS' PARTY.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .



What Was the Objective Significance of Our Partici-
pation in the Duma Elections? .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
The Social and Political Significance of the First
Elections  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
What Is the Party of People's Freedom? .  .  .  .  .  .  .
The Role and Significance of a Cadet Duma   .  .  .  .  .
A Sample of Cadet Smuggness .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .


D i g r e s s i o n. A Popular Talk with Cadet Publicists and
                   Learned Professors.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .



Conclusion .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .



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  [98] The Shidlovsky Commission -- a government commission appointed by the tsar's decree on January 29 (February 11), 1905, "to enquire without delay into the causes of discontent among the workers in the city of St. Petersburg and its suburbs" in view of the strike movement that had followed the "bloody Sunday", January 9. The Commission was headed by Senator N. V. Shidlovsky, a member of the Council of State, and included officials, chiefs of government factories, and factory owners. It was also to have included workers' delegates elected according to a two-stage system. In connection with the elections to the Commission, the Bolsheviks did much to expose the true aims of the government, which hoped the appointment of the Commission would divert the workers from the revolutionary struggle. When the electors demanded from the government freedom of speech, of the press and of assembly, inviolability of the person, etc., Shidlovsky announced, on February 18 (March 3), 1905, that the demands could not be met. Thereupon most of the electors refused to elect delegates, and addressed an appeal to the workers of St. Petersburg, who supported them by going on strike. On February 20 (March 5), 1905, the Commission was dissolved without having started work.    [p. 205]

  [99] The reference is to the tsar's decree of March 8 (21), published on March 11 (24), 1906, during the elections to the First Duma. The decree provided that incitement to boycotting the elections was punishable by four to eight months' imprisonment.    [p. 206]

  [100] Rech (Speech ) -- a daily newspaper, central organ of the Cadet Party. It was published in St. Petersburg from February 23

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(March 8), 1906, and its virtual editors were P. N. Milyukov and I. V. Hessen, with M. M. Vinaver, P. D. Dolgorukov, P. B. Struve and others closely collaborating. On July 22 (August 4), 1906 the paper was suspended, and on August 9 (22) resumed publication. lt was closed by the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet on October 26 (November 8), 1917. It continued to appear till August 1918 under different titles‹Nasha Rech (Our Speech ), Svobodnaya Rech (Free Speech ), Vek (Century), Novaya Rech (New Speech ) and Nash Vek (Our Century ).    [p. 207]

  [101] Russkiye Vedomosti (Russian Recorder ) -- a daily paper published in Moscow from 1863 on by liberal professors of Moscow University and Zemstvo leaders. It represented the interests of liberal landlords and bourgeoisie. In 1905 it became a Right Cadet paper. After the October Revolution it was closed along with other counter-revolutionary newspapers.

    Lenin borrowed the data on the electors from the item "The Elections", published in Russkiye Vedomosti, No. 76, on March 19 (April 1), 1906.    [p. 210]

  [102] Judas Golovlyov -- a sanctimonious, hypocritical serf-owner described in M. Saltykov-Shchedrin's The Golovlyov Family.    [p. 215]

  [103] Polyarnaya Zvezda (The Pole Star ) -- a weekly magazine of the Right wing of the Cadet Party, published in St. Petersburg in 1905-06 and edited by P. B. Struve. In April and May 1906, the Cadets published Svoboda i Kultura (Freedom and Culture ) instead of Polyarnaya Zvezda.    [p. 216]

  [104] The Second Congress of the Constitutional-Democratic (Cadet ) Party took place in St. Petersburg on January 5-11 (18-24), 1906. On the issue of Party tactics, the Congress resolved to approve "as a declaration of the Party" the report which M. M. Vinaver delivered to the Congress on January 11 (24). The fundamental thesis of the declaration was recognition of the political strike as a peaceful means of fighting against the government. The declaration said that the Party considered the chief field of its activity to be "an organised representative assembly" that is, the Duma. The Congress virtually took a stand for a deal with the government.    [p. 217]

  [105] The reference is to the puppets in Saltykov-Shchedrin's tale of that name. Izuverov, the skilful craftsman who made them, said: "They have no wits or deeds or desires. All they have instead is a semblance."    [p. 218]

  [106] Under a treaty signed between the tsarist and the French governments in April 1906, the former was granted a loan of 843 million rubles to suppress the revolution in Russia.    [p. 225]

  [107] This refers to the article "Revelation of the Circumstances Attending the Events of March 1st", which M. N. Katkov, a reactionary

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publicist, contributed to Moskovskiye Vedomosti, No. 65, on March 6 (18), 1881.    [p. 229]

  [108] Svoboda i Kultura (Freedom and Culture ) -- a weekly magazine of the Right wing of the Cadet Party. It was published in St. Petersburg instead of Polyarnaya Zvezda from April 1 (14) to May 31 (June 13), 1906. Its editor was S. L. Frank, with P. B. Struve as a close associate. Eight issues appeared in all. The publication was suspended due to a sharp drop in circulation.    [p. 246]

  [109] The lady with many good points -- a character in Gogol's Dead Souls.    [p. 246]

  [110] Bez Zaglavia (Without Title ) -- a political weekly published in St. Petersburg from January 24 (February 6) to May 14 (27), 1906. Its editor was S. N. Prokopovich, with Y. D. Kuskova, V. Y. Bogucharsky, V. V. Khizhnyakov and others as his associates. The Bez Zaglavia group was made up of Russian bourgeois intellectuals with semi-cadet and semi-Menshevik leanings. Under cover of their formal non-partisanship, they advocated bourgeois liberalism and opportunism, and backed the revisionists among the Social-Democrats in Russia and abroad.    [p. 249]

  [111] Yemelyan Pugachev (1742?-1775) -- leader of the war which Russia's peasants waged against feudal tyranny in 1773-75.    [p. 250]

  [112] In March 1885, during the Reichstag debate on government subsidies to private business for the establishment of regular steamship services to East Asia, Australia and Africa, a majority ot the Social-Democratic Group (the Right wing, which virtually supported Bismarck's colonial policy) voted for an East-Asian and an Australian line. It also promised its support for other lines provided all new ships were built in Germany. It was not until after the Reichstag had rejected this condition that the whole group voted against granting any subsidy. The conduct of the group majority was denounced by Social-Democratic organisations. Engels condemned the opportunist stand of the Reichstag group.    [p. 251]

  [113] The "Youth " were a petty-bourgeois group that arose in 1890 among the German Social-Democrats. The group consisted chiefly of university students who bad broken off their studies and of young writers (which accounted for the name of the group). It advanced a platform rejecting all Social-Democratic participation in the Reichstag. The Erfurt Congress, held in October 1891, expelled the group from the Party.    [p. 251]

  [114] Bernsteiniad (Bernsteinianism ) -- an anti-Marxist trend in international Social-Democracy. It arose at the end of the nineteenth century in Germany and was so named after the German Social-Democrat Eduard Bernstein, an opportunist. After Frederick Engels's death Bernstein undertook an open revision of the revolutionary theory of Marx in the spirit of bourgeois liberalism, and

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sought to turn the Social-Democratic Party into a petty-bourgeois party advocating social reforms.    [p. 251]

  [115] Severny Golos (The Voice of the North ) -- a legal daily newspaper of the R.S.D.L.P., published in St. Petersburg from December 6 (19), 1905 onwards and edited jointly by the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. It was closed with issue No. 3 on December 8 (21) 1905. Nash Golos (Our Voice ), published once -- on December 18 (31), 1905 -- was its continuation.    [p. 252]

  [116] Nachalo (The Beginning ) -- a legal Menshevik daily, published in St. Petersburg from November 13 (26) to December 2(15), 1905. Altogether 16 issues were brought out.    [p. 252]

  [117] See Frederick Engels, "Marx and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung (1848-49)" (Marx and Engels, Selected-Works, Vol. II, Moscow, 1958, pp. 328-37), and Frederick Engels, "Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany", VII. "The Frankfort National Assembly , New York Daily Tribune, 1852. Articles from the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, June 1-November 7, 1848 (Marx, Engels, Werke, Bd. 5, Berlin, 1959).    [p. 261]

  [118] F. Engels, Die preußische Militärfrage und die deutsche Arbeiterpartei, Hamburg, 1865; Marx and Engels, "To the Editorial Board of the Social-Demokrat " (see Marx and Engels, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 201); F. Engels, "Notizen zur Broschüre: Die preußische Militärfrage und die deutsche Arbeiterpartei " (Berliner Reform, Nr. 53, 1865); K. Marx, "Rezension von Engels' Broschüre: Die preußische Militärfrage und die deutsche Arbeiterpartei " (Hermann, März 18, 1865); K. Marx, "Erklärung vom März 18, 1865" (Berliner Reform, Nr. 67, 1865).    [p. 261]

  [119] Riman, N. R. (1864-1917) -- colonel of the tsarist army who was in command of a punitive expedition on the Moscow-Kazan Railway during the suppression of the Moscow armed uprising in December 1905.
    Luzhenovsky, G. N. (1870-1906) -- one of the organisers of Black Hundred pogroms in 1905-06, notorious for the cruel suppression of the peasants' revolutionary movement in the Tambov region. He was assassinated by the Socialist-Revolutionaries in 1906.    [p. 263]

  [120] Tovarishch (Comrade ) -- a daily bourgeois newspaper published in St. Petersburg from March 15 (28), 1906, to December 30, 1907 (January 12, 1908). Closely associated with it were S. N. Prokopovich and Y. D. Kuskova.

    Though not the official organ of any party, the paper served as the mouthpiece of the Left Cadets. Its contributors included Mensheviks.    [p. 271]

  [121] Bourgeois liberalism, which subsequently grouped itself as a political trend round the magazine Osvobozhdeniye, was criticised by Lenin in his article "The Persecutors of the Zemstvo and the

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Hannibals of Liberalism", published in Zarya, Nos. 2 and 3, in 1901 (see present edition, Vol. 5, pp. 31-80). The early issues of Osvobozhdeniye were criticised in Lenin's articles "The Draft of a New Law on Strikes", "Political Struggle and Political Chicanery" and "Mr. Struve Exposed by His Colleague", published in Iskra (see present edition, Vol. 6, pp. 217, 253 and 354).    [p. 273]

  [122] See Karl Marx, The Class Struggles in France, 1848 to 1850 (Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. I, Moscow, 1958, pp. 139-242.    [p. 276]

  [123] The Girondists -- a bourgeois political group during the French bourgeois revolution. They represented the interests of the bourgeois moderates, and vacillated between revolution and counter-revolution, pursuing a policy of compromise with the monarchy.    [p. 276]