In 1907, the Zerno Book Publishers, directed by M. S. Kedrov, decided to bring out a three-volume collection of Lenin's works under the general title Twelve Years. The original contract for this publication is in the Central Party Archive of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism under the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Only the first volume and part one of the second appeared. The first volume contained: The Economic Content of Narodism and the Criticism of it in Mr Struve's Book ; The Tasks of the Russian Social-Democrats ; The Persecutors of the Zemstvo
; The Zemstvo Campaign and Iskra's Plan ; Two Tactics of Social-Democracy in the Democratic Revolution. The first volume came off the press in November 1907 (the cover gives the date 1908) and was confiscated soon after its appearance but a large part of the edition was saved, the book continued to circulate illegally.
and the Hannibals of Liberalism ; What Is To Be Done? ; One Step Forward, Two Steps Back
Volume II was to contain Lenin's writings on the agrarian question. Owing to persecution by the censorship it was decided to drop the title Twelve Years and to issue the second volume in two parts: part one to contain the legal works published in 1899 in the symposium Economic Studies and Essays ; part two the illegal works. Lenin included in the second volume his book The Agrarian Programme of Social-Democracy in the First Russian Revolution, 1905-1907 which he had just completed. This plan of publication, however, was not realised. Only the first part of Volume II under the title The Agrarian Question came out in the beginning of 1908, containing the following writings: A Characterisation of Economic Romanticism, The Handicraft Census of 1894-95 in Perm Gubernia and General Problems of "Handicraft" Industry, and The Agrarian Question and the "Critics of Marx" (Chapters I-XI). Part two of the second volume for which The Agrarian Programme of Social-Democracy in the First Russian Revolution, 1905-1907 had been set up, was confiscated by the police in the printing-press and destroyed.
Volume III was to contain programmatic and polemical articles which had appeared in the Bolshevik press (Iskra, Vperyod, Proletary, Novaya Zhizn, and others). The intensification of repression and censorship persecution against revolutionary literature prevented the publication of the third volume.
The Emancipation of Labour group -- the first Russian Marxist group founded by G. V. Plekhanov in Switzerland in 1883. Other members of the group were P. B. Axelrod, L. G. Deutsch, Vera Zasulich, and V. N. Ignatov.
The Emancipalion of Labour group did a great deal for the propaganda of Marxism in Russia. It translated into Russian, published abroad, and distributed in Russia Marx's and Engels's Manifesto of the Communist Party, Marx's Wage-Labour and Capital, Engels's Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, and other works by the founders of Marxism, and also popularised Marxism in its own publications. Their work dealt a severe blow to Narodism, which was the chief ideological obstacle to the spread of Marxism and the development of the Social-Democratic movement in Russia. In his Socialism and the Political Struggle (1883), Our Differences (1885), and other writings, Plekhanov criticised the reactionary views of the Narodniks from the Marxist standpoint (their views concerning the non-capitalist path of Russia's development, denial of the leaaing role of the proletariat in the revolutionary movement, their subjective-idealistic view on the role of the individual in history, etc.). Plekhanov's two drafts of a programme for Russian Social-Democrats (1883 and 1885) published by the Emancipation
of Labour group were an important step towards the building of a Social-Democratic Party in Russia. Plekhanov's book The Development of the Monist View of History (1895) "served to rear a whole generation of Russian Marxists" (Lenin, see present edition, Vol. 16, "The Vperyod Faction"). It played a very important role in spreading Marxist views and stating the case for dialectical and historical materialism. The group published and distributed in Russia four volumes of the symposium Sotsial-Demokrat, as well as a series of popular pamphlets for the workers.
Engels welcomed the appearance of the Emancipation of Labour group "which sincerely and without reservations accepted the great economic and historical theories of Marx" (Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Ausgewählte Briefe, Berlin, Dietz Verlag, 1953, S. 455). Plekhanov and Vera Zasulich were personal friends of Engels and corresponded with him for many years. The group established contacts with the international labour movement, and, beginning with the First Congress of the Second International (Paris, 1889) and throughout the whole period of its existence, it represented Russian Social-Democracy at all congresses of the International.
The group played an important part in developing revolutionary consciousness of the Russian working class, arthough the group had no practical ties with the workers' movement in Russia. Lenin pointed out that the group "only laid the theoretical foundations for the Social-Democratic movement and took the first step towards the working-class movement" (see present edition, Vol. 20, "The Ideological Struggle in the Working-Class Movement"). Moreover the members of the group were guilty of serious errors. They overestimated the role of the liberal bourgeoisie and underestimated the revolutionary role of the peasantry as a reserve force of the proletarian revolution. These errors contained the germ of the future Menshevik views adopted by Plekhanov and other members of the group.
On the initiative of the group, the Union of Russian Social-Democrats Abroad was founded in 1894. The members of the group withdrew from the Union in 1900 and founded the revolutionary organisation Sotsial-Demokrat. Members of the group on the editorial boards of Iskra and Zarya were Plekhanov, Axelrod, and Vera Zasulich. The Emancipation of Labour group announced its dissolution at the Second Congress of the R.S.D.L.P. in August 1903.
St. is V. V. Starkov, R. is S. I. Radchenko, K. is R. E. Klasson.
Novoye Slovo (New Word ) -- a monthly scientific, literary, and political magazine, published by liberal Narodniks in St. Petersburg from 1894, and by the "legal Marxists" from the spring of 1897. It published two articles by Lenin, "A Characterisation of Economic Romanticism" and "About a Certain Newspaper Article". The magazine was closed down by the tsarist authorities in December l897.
Zarya (Dawn) -- a Marxist theoretical and political magazine pubished by the editors of Iskra in 1901-02. The following articles by Lenin were published in it: "Casual Notes", "The Persecutors of the Zemstvo and the Hannibals of Liberalism", the first four chapters of The Agrarian Question and the "Critics of Marx " (under the title of "The 'Critics' on the Agrarian Question"), "Review of Home Affairs", and "The Agrarian Programme of Russian Social-Democracy". Four issues of the magazine appeared.
Iskra (The Spark ) -- the first all-Russian illegal Marxist newspaper, founded by Lenin in 1900. After the Second Congress of the R. S. D. L. P. it became the Central Organ of the Party. Lenin's reference to the old Iskra applies to issues No. 1 to No. 51 of the paper. After that Iskra became the factional organ of the Mensheviks.
The Narodnaya Volya (People's Will ) group, whose members were known as Narodovoltsi, came into existence in St. Petersburg in the autumn of 1891. Among its original membership were M. S. Olminsky (Alexandrov) N. L. Meshchervakov, Y. M. Alexandrova, A. A. Fedulov, and A. A. Yergin. The group adhered to the Narodnaya Volya programme. Its press issued a number of illegal pamphlets and leaflets, Worker's Miscellany, and two issues of Letuchy Listok (The Leaflet ). The group was suppressed by the police in April 1894 but shortly resumed its activities. At that period it was in process of abandoning Narodnaya Volya views for Social-Democracy. The last issue of Letuchy Listok, No. 4, which appeared in December 1895, showed clear signs of Social-Democratic influence. The group established contact with the St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, printed several of the League's publications (for example, Lenin's Explanation of the Law on Fines Imposed on Factory Workers ), and made arrangements with the League for the joint publication of the newspaper Rabocheye Dyelo. Arrangements were also made to use the group's press to print Lenin's pamphlet On Strikes which was smuggled out of prison in May 1896 (the manuscript is still missing). This plan did not mature, however, owing to the discovery and suppression of the printing-press by the police and the arrest of members of the group in June 1896, after which the group went out of existence. Eventually some of its members (P. F. Kudelli, N. L. Meshcheryakov, M. S. Olminsky, and others) became active figures in the R.S.D.L.P., the majority, however, joining the Socialist-Revolutionary Party.
The Narodnoye Pravo (People's Right ) group, whose members were known as Narodopravtsi, was an illegal organisation of Russian democratic intellectuals founded in the summer of 1893 by the former Narodovoltsi 0. V. Aptekman, A. I. Bogdanovich, A. V. Gedeonovsky, M. A. Natanson, N. S. Tyutchev, and others. The Narodopravtsi made it their aim to unite all opposition forces for the fight to win political reforms. The organisation issued two programmatic documents -- "The Manifesto" and "An Urgent Issue". It was suppressed by the tsarist authorities in spring of 1894. For
Lenin's assessment of the Narodnoye Pravo as a political party see What the "Friends of the People " Are and How They Fight the Social Democrats (present edition, Vol. 1, pp. 320-32) and The Tasks of the Russian Social-Democrats (present edition, Vol. 2, pp. 344-45). Most of the Narodopravtsi subsequently joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party.
Bernsteinism -- an opportunist trend in German and international Social-Democracy hostile to Marxism. It arose in the late nineteenth century and received its name from Eduard Bernstein, who was the most outspoken representative of the Right opportunist trend in the German Social-Democratic Party.
Bezzaglavtsi -- members of a semi-Cadet, semi-Menshevik, group of Russian intellectuals (S. N. Prokopovich, Y. D. Kuskova, V. Y. Bogucharsky, V. V. Portugalov, V. V. Khizhnyakov, and others), which came into being when the revolution of 1905-07 was beginning to decline. The group's name was derived from the weekly political periodical Bez Zaglaviya (literally Without a Title ) issued in St. Petersburg in January-May 1906 under the editorship of Prokopovich. Later the Bezzaglavtsi grouped themselves around the Left-wing Cadet newspaper Tovarishch. Under the cloak of formal non-partisanship they advocated the ideas of bourgeois liberalism and opportunism and supported the revisionists in Russian and international Social-Democracy.
"Volume 3 of this publication " -- meaning the third volume of the collection Twelve Years, which was never published.
Novaya Zhizn (New Life ) -- the first legal Bolshevik newspaper, published in St. Petersburg as a daily from October 27 (November 9) to December 3 (16), 1905. Lenin took over the editorship upon his return to Russia in early November. Novaya Zhizn was in fact the Central Organ of the R.S.D.L.P. Closely associated with the paper were V. D. Bonch-Bruyevich, V. V. Vorovsky, A. V. Lunacharsky, M. S. Olminsky, and others. Maxim Gorky actively collaborated and gave the paper great financial aid. The circulation reached 80,000 copies.
The newspaper was constantly persecuted. Of the twenty-seven issues, fifteen were confiscated. Following the appearance of issue No. 27 the paper was closed down by the government. The last issue, No. 28, came out illegally.
Vperyod (Forward ) -- an illegal Bolshevik weekly, published in Geneva from December 22, 1904 (January 4, 1905) to May 5 (18), 1905. Eighteen numbers were issued. The newspaper's organiser, manager and ideological guide was Lenin. Other members of the Editoriai Board were V. V. Vorovsky, A. V. Lunacharsky, and M. S. Olminsky.
The outstanding role which the newspaper played in combating Menshevism, re-establishing the Party principle, and formulating
and elucidating the tactical issues posed by the rising revolution was acknowledged in a special resolution of the Third Party Congress, which recorded a vote of thanks to the Editorial Board.
Cut-off lands (otrezki ) -- lands which were taken away (cut off) from the peasants by the landlords when serfdom was abolished in Russia.
Zemstvo -- so-called local self-government bodies headed by the nobility. Zemstvos were set up in the central gubernias of Russia in 1864. Their powers were restricted to purely local economic affairs (hospitals, roads, statistics, insurance, etc.). They were subordinated to the provincial governors and the Ministry of the Interior, who could overrule any decisions the government found undesirable.
Executive Committee of the left -- the slogan for the formation of such a committee was put forward by the Bolsheviks in order to ensure the independence of the class line pursued by the workers' deputies in the Duma, to guide the activities of the peasant deputies and keep them free from the influence of the Cadets. The Mensheviks countered this slogan with their slogan of "a national opposition", that is, support of the Cadets by the workers' and peasants' deputies, the Mensheviks classing the Cadets as a Left party, along with the Social-Democrats, Soclalist-Revolutionaries, and Trudoviks.
In July 1906, after the First Duma was dissolved, the Executive Committee of the Left virtually organised itself around the Social-Democratic group of the Duma. On the initiative of the Executive Committee of the Left the following manifestoes were issued: "Manifesto to the Army and Navy" over the signatures of the Committee of the Social-Democratic Duma group and the Committee of the Trudovik group; "Manifesto to All the Russian Peasants" signed also by the All-Russian Peasant Union, the C.C. of the R.S.D.L.P., the C.C. of the Party of the Socialist-Revolutionaries, the All-Russian Railwaymen's Union and the All-Russian Teachers' Union, "Manifesto to All the People" signed by the above parties (without the three unions) as well as by the Polish Socialist Party and the Bund. The manifestoes rallied the people to the revolutionary struggle against the government and put forward the slogan of a constituent assembly.