Marx and Engels, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, pp. 250-53.
Marx and Engels, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, pp. 222-23.
Marx and Engels, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, pp. 240.
Karl Marx, Letters to Dr. Kugelmann, Moscow, 1934, p. 80.
Karl Marx, Letters to Dr. Kugelmann, Moscow, 1934, p. 35.
Marx and Engels, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, pp. 263-64.
Brentanoism -- "a bourgeois liberal teaching recognising the non-revolutionary 'class' struggle of the proletariat" (see present edition, Vol. 28, "The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky"); it preached the possibility of solving the workers' problems within the framework of capitalism through factory legislation and the organisation of the workers in trade unions. It took its name from the German bourgeois economist, Lujo Brentano (1844-1931).
Struvism or "legal Marxism " -- a liberal bourgeois distortion of Marxism that emerged as an independent socio-political trend in the nineties of the nineteenth century among Russian liberal bourgeois intellectuals.
By that time Marxism had bccome fairly widespread in Russia and bourgeois intellectuals began preaching their own views under cover of Marxism in legal newspapers and magazines; for this reason they were called "legal Marxists".
The legal Marxists criticised the Narodniks for their defence of petty production and tried to use Marxism in this struggle, but the kind of Marxism they wanted was one purged of all its revolutionary content. Attempting to subordinate the working-class movement to the interests of the bourgeoisie, they discarded Marxism's most important feature -- the theory of the proletarian revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat. P. Struve, leader of the legal Marxists, lauded capitaiism and, instead of a revolutionary strnggle against the capitalist system, called for "a recognition of our backwardness" and proposed "learning from capitalism". The legal Marxists revised almost all the basic postulates
of Marxism and adopted the viewpoint of bourgeois objectivism, the viewpoint of Kantianism, and subjective idealism.
Lenin recognised the liberal bourgeois nature of legal Marxism earlier than anybody else did. In his article "On the So-Called Market Question" Lenin, as far back as 1893, criticised the views of the legal Marxists, then a new trend, at the time he exposed the views of the liberal Narodniks. The legal Marxists were the first hidden enemies the Russian Marxists came up against. They called themselves followers of Marx but actually deprived Marxism of its revolutionary content. In their struggle against the Narodniks, however, the Russian revolutionary Marxists entered into temporary agreements with the legal Marxists and published their own articles in journals edited by legal Marxists. At the same time, in his article "The Economic Content of Narodism and the Criticism of It in Mr. Struve's Book", Lenin severely criticised legal Marxism, calling it the reflection of Marxism in bourgeois literature, and exposed the "legal Marxists" as the ideologists of the liberal bourgeoisie. Lenin's characterisation of the "legal Marxists" was later confirmed in full -- they became prominent Cadets and, later, fanatical whiteguards. Lenin's determined struggle against the "legal Marxists" in Russia was also a struggle against international revisionism, and was an example of ideological irreconcilability with distortions of the Marxist theory.
Sombartism -- liberal bourgeois lrend named after Werner Sombart (1863-1941), a vulgar bourgeois economist, one of the ideologists of liberalism in Germany. Sombart, Lenin wrote, has "substituted Brentanoism for Marxism by employing Marxian terminology, by quoting some of Marx's statements and by assuming a Marxist disguise" (see present edition, Vol. 10, p. 260). [Transcriber's Note: See Lenin's The Victory of the Cadets and the Tasks of the Workers' Party. -- DJR]
Marx and Engels, Selected Works, Vol. 1, Moscow, 1958, pp. 491-98.
The Man in a Muffler -- the central character in a story of that name by Anton Chekhov -- a limited, philistine type who fears all initiative and everything new.
Marx and Engels, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1958, pp. 318-19.
Marx and Engels, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1958, pp. 320.