The article "On Bolshevism " was written by Lenin for the second volume of N. A. Rubakin's book Among Books. On January 12
(25), 1913, Lenin sent the article to Rubakin in Clarens, Switzerland, with a letter stipulating that the article "should not be altered in any way " (see Present edition, Vol. 35, Russian ed., p. 45). The article was published in full.
Iskra (The Spark ) -- the first all-Russia illegal Marxist newspaper. It was founded by Lenin in December 1900 abroad, from where it was secretly sent to Russia. It played a tremendous part in uniting the Russian Social-Democrats ideologically and paving the way for the unification of scattered local organisations in a revolutionary Marxist party. After the split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks that took place at the Second Congress of the R.S.D.L.P. in 1903, Iskra passed into the hands of the Mensheviks (beginning with No. 52) and came to be called the "new" Iskra as distinct from the "old" Iskra, edited by Lenin.
The Zemstvo campaign was conducted by bourgeois liberals between the autumn of 1904 and January 1905. It consisted of a series of congresses, public meetings and banquets at which speeches were made and resolutions passed in support of moderate constitutional demands. Lenin sharply criticised the Menshevik attitude of support for the campaign in his article "The Zemstvo Campaign and Iskra's Plan" (see present edition, Vol. 7, pp. 497-518).
Machism -- a reactionary, subjectivist-idealist philosophical trend which became widespread in Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. It was founded by Ernst Mach, an Austrian physicist and philosopher, and Richard Avenarius, a German philosopher.
Machism was particularly dangerous to the working class as a trend of bourgeois idealist philosophy, for while professing to be opposed to idealism it referred to contemporary natural science, a circumstance which gave it a "scientific" semblance. In Russia, Machist influence was strong among a section of the Social-Democratic intelligentsia. It was particularly widespread among the Menshevik intellectuals, such as N. Valentinov and P. S. Yushkevich. Some Bolshevik writers, too, including V. Bazarov, A. Bogdanov and A. V. Lunacharsky, adopted the standpoint of Machism. Under the pretence of developing Marxism, the Russian Machists tried to revise the fundamental tenets of Marxist philosophy. Lenin in his book Materialism and Empirio-criticism exposed the reactionary nature of Machism. He upheld Marxist philosophy against revisionist attacks and elaborated dialectical and historical materialism in the new historical conditions. The defeat of Machism struck a powerful blow at the ideological positions of the Mensheviks, otzovists and god-builders.
V. Ilyin -- one of Lenin's pseudonyms.