MARXIST INTERNET ARCHIVE |  V. I. Lenin


V. I. Lenin

NEW DATA ON THE LAWS
GOVERNING THE DEVELOPMENT OF
CAPITALISM IN AGRICULTURE

PART ONE

CAPITALISM AND AGRICULTURE IN
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Published in 1915
First published in 1917 as
a separate pamphlet by the
Zhizn i Znaniye Publishers

Published according
to the manuscript
 
 

From V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, 4th English Edition,
Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1964

Vol. 22, pp. 13-102.

Translated by Yuri Sdobnikov
Edited by George Hanna


Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo, djr@cruzio.com (July 1997)

NEW DATA ON THE LAWS GOVERNING THE DEVELOPMENT OF
CAPITALISM IN AGRICULTURE. PART ONE. CAPITALISM AND
AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA  .   .   .   .


 
17

1.
 
2.
3.
4.
 
5.
6.
7.
8.
 
9.
10.
 
11.
12.
13.
 
14.
15.
 
16.

General Characteristics of the Three Main Sections.
 The Homested West .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
The Industrial North  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
The Former Slave-owning South   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
Average Size of Farms. "Disintegration of Capitalsim" in
 the South   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
The Capitalist Nature of Agriculture .   .   .   .   .   .   .
Areas of the Most Intensive Agriculture .   .   .   .   .   .
Machinery and Hired Labour in Agriculture  .   .   .   .   .
Displacement of Small by Big Enterprises. Quantity of
 Improved Land .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
Continued. Statistics on the Value of Farms .  .   .   .   .
Defects of Conventional Methods of Economic Analysis.
 Marx on the Peculiarities of Agriculture  .   .   .   .   .
A More Exact Comparison of Small and Large Enterprises
Different Types of Enterprises in Agriculture .   .   .   .
How the Displacement of Small-scale by Large-scale
 Production in Agriculture Is Minimised .   .   .   .   .   .
The Expropriation of the Small Farmers .   .   .   .   .   .
A Comparative Picture of Evolution in Industry and
 Agriculture .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
Summary and Conclusions .  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .


19
22
24
 
27
32
37
43
 
48
55
 
58
64
72
 
78
85
 
92
100

NOTES



Average per acre of all land ($)

Groups of farms by
principal source
of income

Percentage
of total
number of
farms


Average
acreage
per farm


Total
im-
proved


Outlays
on
labour


Outlays
on fer-
tilisers

Value of
implements
and
machinery


 
Value of
livestock

Hay and grain  .   .   .   .Miscellaneous .   .   .   .

23.018.5

159.3106.9

111.1 46.5

0.470.35

0.040.08

1.040.94

3.172.73


Livestock   .   .   .   .   .Cotton   .   .   .   .   .   .

27.318.7

226.9 83.6

86.142.5

0.290.30

0.020.14

0.660.53

4.452.11


Vegetables  .   .   .   .   .Fruits   .   .   .   .   .   .Dairy produce .   .   .   .

 2.7 1.4 6.2

 65.1 74.8121.9

33.841.663.2

1.622.460.86

0.590.300.09

2.122.341.66

3.743.355.58


Average for all farms .   .

100.0 

146.6

72.3

0.43

0.07

0.90

3.66


 
 
 
 
 
Number of farms

By principal source
of income

By farm acreage

By value of
product


Slightly
capi-
talist

Med-
ium

Highly
capi-
talist

Small

Med-
ium

Large

Non-
capi-
talist

Med-
ium

Capi-
talist

46.0

41.5

12.5

57.5

24.8

17.7

58.8

24.0

17.2

Index of
extensive-
ness of
agriculture

Total acreage

59.2

38.5

 8.6

17.5

22.9

59.6

33.3

23.6

43.1

Con-
stant
capital

Value of imple-
ments and
machinery

Outlays on
fertilisers


 
 
37.2
 
 
36.5


 
 
42.7
 
 
31.8


 
 
20.1
 
 
31.7


 
 
31.7
 
 
41.9


 
 
28.9
 
 
25.7


 
 
39.4
 
 
32.4


 
 
25.3
 
 
29.1


 
 
28.0
 
 
26.1


 
 
46.7
 
 
44.8

Index of
intensive-
ness of
agriculture

Var-
iable
capital

Outlays on
hired labour



35.2



38.2



26.6



22.3



23.5



54.2



11.3



19.6



69.1

Index of
capitalist
character
of enter-
prise

Scale
of pro-
duction

Value of product


45.0


39.0


16.0


33.5


27.3


39.2


22.1


25.6


52.3


page 363


NOTES

  [1] Written in 1915. In early 1916, Lenin, while in Berne, sent the manuscript to Maxim Gorky for the Parus Publishers, but it did not appear at that time. It was published in Petrograd in 1917 by Zhisn i Znaniye.
    The material for the book -- variants of the plan and statistical extracts from the U.S. Census reports for 1900 and 1910 -- was published in Lenin Miscellany XIX in 1932.
    Lenin did not realise his intention of writing the second part of the book, which was to have dealt with Germany.    [p.13]

  [2] Zavety (Behests ) -- a legal literary and political monthly of a Socialist-Revolutionary orientation; published in Petersburg from April 1912 to July 1914.    [p.17]

  [3] Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. III, Moscow, 1959, pp. 600.    [p.22]

  [4] Zemstvo -- so-called local self-government bodies headed by the nobility. They were set up in the central gubernias of Russia in 1864. Their powers were restricted to purely local economic affairs (hospitals, roads, statistics, insurance, etc.), and they were subordinated to the provincial governors and the Minister of the Interior, who could overrule any decisions the government found undesirable.    [p.60]

  [5] Manilov -- a character in Gogol's Dead Souls, who had a very fertile imagination and loved to talk; a prattling self-complacent dreamer.    [p.84]