The first Russian revolution hall in the lenin Museum
Early Sunday morning, January 9 (22), 1905, the workers
of St. Petersburg, carrying banners, icons and portraits of the tsar,
solemnly marched to the Winter Palace, the residence of the tsar, with
a petition in which they told of their unbearably difficult life. Many
came with their wives and children. More than one hundred and forty thousand
people took part in the procession. Upon the order of the tsar, this peaceful,
unarmed procession was met by gunshot. More than one thousand people were
killed, and almost five thousand were injured.
The photographs portray the mass demonstrations against tsarism that
took place in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Ivanovo-Voznesensk, Krasnoyarsk
and other cities. Here are the leaflets calling for uprising. I.Shadr's
expressive sculpture, "The Cobblestonethe Weapon
of the Proletariat" (1927), is also exhibited in the hall.
Forced to live abroad at this time, Lenin took an active
interest in the events in Russia and quickly responded to them. Among
the exhibit items is the fourth issue of the newspaper Vpcryod,
with Lenin's article, "The Beginning of the Revolution in Russia" in which
he appraises the events of January 9: "The working class has received
a momentous lesson in civil war; the revolutionary education of the proletariat
made more progress in one day than it could have made in months and years
of drab, humdrum, wretched existence."
In April 1905 the Third Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic
Labour Party took place in London defining the strategy and tactics of
the Party in the bourgeois-democratic revolution and development of it
Into a socialist revolution. A photograph of the delegates to the Congress
hangs on the wall. Lenin's handwritten plans for resolutions about an
armed revolt, about the provisional revolutionary government, and about
support of the peasant movement are on display here.
The first edition of V. I. Lenin's book, Two Tactics of Social-Democracy
in the Democratic Revolution (June-July 1905), is found in the centre
of this hall. In this book, the particulars of bourgeois-democratic revolution
in the epoch of imperialism, its driving forces and prospects were disclosed.
Lenin comprehensively substantiated the idea of the proletariat as predominant
force in the bourgeois-democratic revolution, and worked out the theory
of its development into a socialist revolution.
Subsequent events confirmed the correctness of the decision
made by the Third Congress of the RSDLP. The photographs, documents and
Other materials on display portray the development of the revolutionary
struggle in the spring and summer of 1905: the huge strikes in the industrial
centres throughout the country, the peasant unrest, and the first barricades
in the city streets. The army joined the political struggle. One of the
photographs shows the battleship Potyomkin which raised the flag
of mutiny in the Black Sea Fleet. A model of this battleship is placed
in the centre of the hall.
During the strikes the proletariat of Russia formed the
first mass political proletarian organisations in world history, the Soviets
of Workers' Deputies. Photographs of the strike in the city Ivanovo-Voznesensk
are on exhibit. It was precisely here that workers founded the Soviet
of Representatives, the first Soviet of Workers' Deputies-prototype of
the Soviet power.
V. I. Lenin longed for his native country. And the time
had arrived in November 1905 he returned from emigration to St. Petersburg
and started his tireless revolutionary activities. He directed the work
of the central and St. Petersburg Bolshevik committees, made speeches
at Party meetings and conferences in St. Petersburg and Moscow, met with
Party workers and wrote articles for Bolshevik publications. Under his
leadership an armed uprising was being prepared.
On exhibit in the hall is the first legal Bolshevik newspaper
Novaya Zhizn (New Life), headed by Lenin after his return to our
country. He gathered about the newspaper, not only Party comrades dedicated
to the work of the revolution but also splendid journalists and publicists:
M.OIminsky, V.Vorovsky, A.Lunacharsky
R.Luxemburg, K. Liebknecht, M. Cachin, P. Lafargue and others wrote for
the newspaper. Lenin himself was a talented journalist and editor. He
knew his reader and expressed himself precisely every time, finding a
splendid form of exposition. Fourteen articles by Lenin were published
in Novaya Zhizn. An issue with one of his most important articles is on
display. The article is "Party Organisation and Party Literature"; here
V. I. Lenin advanced and substantiated the principle of political commitment
in literature. Progressive literature follows this principle to day. Newspapers
and magazines from 1905 to 1907 which published Lenin's works are exhibited
in the display case in the centre of the hall.
The armed uprising in Moscow in December 1905 became the culmination
of the Russian revolution. During a period of 9
days several thousand armed workers led a heroic struggle with the police
and government troops. The map-diagram shows the locations of barricade
battles and mass workers' actions in Moscow and other cities in Russia.
Slides devoted to the Moscow uprising are demonstrated in this hall. The
final part of this exposition is dedicated to the world-wide historic
significance of the Russian revolution that took place from 1905 to 1907.
Anatoly Lunacharsky. Lenin
and Russian revolution.
Alexandra Kollontai The
Fidel Castro October
Revolution and Cuban Revolution
and other historical documents and photos at the Defend
Lenin mausoleum! site.
Years of Reaction