Lenin in August 1917.
Lenin arrived in Petrograd at night April 3 (16), 1917. Workers, soldiers
and sailors met him. The entire square and the streets adjoining the railway
station were filled with people. With unceasing shouts of "Hurrah!" the
workers lifted Lenin onto an armoured car. He concluded his short speech
with the flaming words: "Long live the socialist revolution!"
Russian revolution Programm: Lenin's "April Theses"
Lenin's famous "April Theses" and also his "Letters on Tactics" and materials
from the 7th (April) All-Russia Conference of the Bolshevik Party are
on exhibition. These programme documents armed the Party and working class
of Russia with a concrete plan of struggle for the transition from the
bourgeois-democratic revolution into a socialist one.
Lenin speaking at the Taurida Palace, in Petrograd, April 1917.
"The specific feature of the present situation in Russia," wrote
Lenin in his "Theses", "is that the country is passing from the first
stage of the revolutionwhich, owing to the insufficient class-consciousness
and organization of the proletariat, places power in the hands of the
bourgeoisie-to its second stage, which must place power in the hands of
the proletariat and the poorest sections of the peasants..."
"This peculiar situation demands of us an ability to adapt ourselves
to the special conditions of Party work among unprecedentedly large masses
of proletarians who have just awakened to political life..."
"The masses must be made to see that the Soviets of Workers' Deputies
are the only possible form of revolutionary government, and that therefore
our task is, as long as this government yields to the influence of the
bourgeoisie, to present a patient, systematic, and persistent explanation
of the errors of their tactics, an explanation especially adapted to the
practical needs of the masses."
The Bolsheviks began wide explanatory work among the masses. They spoke
before workers, peasants and soldiers, explaining the Party programme
to them, calling for a socialist revolution. The artist I. Brodsky's painting,
"V. I. Lenin's Speech at a Workers' Meeting at the Putilovsky Plant, May
12 (25), 1917", depicts the atmosphere of that time, and the workers'
readiness to follow the Party.
The documentary photographs recount the powerful protest demonstrations
by workers, soldiers and sailors against the imperialist war, and against
the entire bourgeois politics of the Provisional Government. One of them
shows the shooting down of workers and soldiers taking part in a peaceful
demonstration in Petrograd in July. After that V.I.Lenin wrote: "All
hopes for a peaceful development of the Russian revolution have vanished
Shooting down of peaceful demonstration in Petrograd in July 1917.
After the shooting down of these demonstrators the Provisional Government
subjected the Bolshevik Party and workers' organisations to cruel repressions,
just as the last tsarist government had done not long before. Lenin's
arrest was ordered. It became obvious that further stay in Petrograd would
endanger Lenin's life. The Central Committee of the Party decided to send
him not far from the Razliv Station (a suburb of Petrograd) to the home
of the worker Emelyanov. Lenin left for Razliv late in the evening of
July 9 (22). The exposition in this hall is connected with Lenin's last
few days underground. These are: photographs of the places where he was
in hiding and belongings which he used. For almost a month Lenin lived
in hiding in the forest along the shore of the Razliv Lake under the guise
of a hay-maker. His "home" was a hay shanty; nearby a small clearing in
the shrubbery served as a courtyard with two chocks-his "table and chair".
Lenin jokingly called this his "green office". His "kitchen" was situated
near the hut-it was a pot hanging on a crossbeam over a campfire. Lenin
was working very hard preparing the materials for the Sixth Bolshevik
Party Congress and continuing to write his book The State and Revolution....
On display here are the documents and materials from the Party's Sixth
Congress (it took place in late July and early August 1917) whose decisions
were directed toward the preparation of the working class and poorest
peasants in Russia for an armed uprising, and for the victory of the socialist
revolution. The first edition of the minutes of the Congress, resolutions
about the political and economic situation, about the current situation,
about youth unions, and the Rules of the RSDLP(B) are here in the display
case. Lenin's works, the theses "The Political Situation", the pamphlet
"On Slogans", the article "The Tasks of the Proletariat in the Present
Revolution", which formed a basis of these RSDLP documents, are also presented
in the exposition.
On August 6 (19), 1917 Lenin left Razliv for Finland in make-up and wearing
a wig, with documents in the name of the worker K. Ivanov, from the Sestroretsk
arms factory. A photograph of Lenin, "Ivanov", is presented in this room.
In September 1917 V. I. Lenin completed his book The State and Revolution.
In this book he developed the Marxist teachings on the state and on the
two phases in communist society, and comprehensively substantiated one
of the fundamental tenets of Marxism on the regularity and inevitability
of the dictatorship of the working class and on its historical role in
the development of mankind on the path to communism. V. I. Lenin wrote,
"The transition from capitalism to communism is certainly bound to
yield a "tremendous abundance and variety of political forms, but the
essence will inevitably be the same: the dictatorship of the proletariat."
In relation to this he emphasised that the guiding and directing force
of the dictatorship of the proletariat is a Party of Communists. The first
edition of this book and various pages of the manuscript, and also its
numerous editions in languages of the various nationalities in the USSR
and foreign countries are also located in this exposition.
Lenin wears a wig for this photograph which was to
go on a certificate issued in the name of a worker, K. P. Ivanov. With
this document Lenin left illegally for Finland to escape the persecutions
of the Provisional Govern-ment. August 1917.
In early October 1917 (between the 3rd and the 7th according to the old
Calendar), V. I. Lenin, in make-up, returned illegally to Russia and rode
on the tender of a railway engine from Finland to Petrograd. A model of
this engine is located in this room. The actual engine No. 293 was given
to the Soviet Union by the Finnish Government in 1957 (today it can be
seen in the special glass pavilion constructed in the Finland Railway
Station in Leningrad).
On the display stand is Lenin's manuscriptthe resolution of the
Party Central Committee of October 10 (23), 1917 on the armed uprising.
It is stated in the resolution that an armed uprising is imminent, and
the necessity of thorough preparation is emphasized. The Military-Revolutionary
Committee, the organ in charge of the uprising, was founded upon the proposal
of the Party's Central Committee at the Petrograd Soviet, and on October
16 (29), at a plenary session of the Party's Central Committee a Military-Revolutionary
Centre of the Party's Central Committee was elected, becoming the main
body of the Military-Revolutionary Committee.
During the course of many weeks Lenin had been persistently preparing
the Party and the working class for uprising, working out the basic rules
and plans for it, checking his practical preparation in the Party organizations,
attentively seeing to the development of the revolutionary situation in
the country, and determining the "right moment" for the uprising. He attached
utmost importance to the correct choice of this moment.
Staying in an apartment in the underground and learning on October 24
(November 6) that government troops were about to raise the bridges across
the Neva, Vladimir llyich quickly wrote and sent out a note to the Central
Committee requesting permission to come to Smolny. Shortly thereafter,
he wrote his historic letter to the Central Committee, demanding that
it immediately launch a decisive offensive.
"I am writing these lines on the evening of the 24th. The situation
is critical in the extreme. In fact it is now absolutely clear that
to delay the uprising would be fatal."
Lenin's plan for an armed uprising was realised in Petrograd on the night
of October 24-25 (November 6-7) 1917. The map-diagram in this hall demonstrates
the development of events during this night. Among the exhibit items is
the painting "V. I. Lenin on the Steps of Smolny" by artist V. Tsiplakov.
Smolnyin the days of the revolution. October 1917
In the photographs picket-lines of soldiers and sailors are shown checking
passes at the entrance to Smolny, which became the focal point of the
stormy events of those days. Commanders of revolutionary regiments and
representatives' from factories from every end of the city came here for
instructions. The square in front of Smolny buzzed with people's voices
and the noise of automobiles and motorcycles. Sailors' and workers' caps
and papakhas of soldiers could be seen everywhere.... Armoured
cars, cannons, machine-guns and stacks of firewood in the event of the
construction of barricades.... And the entire picture was illuminated
by brightly burning bonfires.
The plan for the uprising was realised quickly and systematically. The
revolution was victorious on October 25 (November 7).
The address "To the Citizens of Russia", written by Lenin October 25
(November 7), 1917 at 10:00 a.m. is presented on the display stand. The
address announced the deposition of the Provisional Government and the
transition of state power into the hands of the Military-Revolutionary
Committee: "The cause for which the people have fought, namely, the immediate
offer of a democratic peace, the abolition of landed proprietorship, workers'
control over production, and the establishment of Soviet power - this
cause has been secured."
The decisions of the Second All-Russia Congress of Soviets of Workers'
and Soldiers' Deputies formalised the victory of the Great October Socialist
Revolution. October 25 (November 7), 1917 went down in history as victory
day for the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia. This day is
the most significant date in the history of the USSR.
Decree on Land
Lenin's speech on October 26 (November 8), 1917 at the Second All-Russia
Congress of Soviets is portrayed in the painting by V.Serov. The first
decrees of the Soviet Government adopted by the Congress-the Decree on
Peace and the Decree on Land, are on display.
Lenin's Decree on Peace
Lenin's Decree on Peace defined the character and direction of the entire
foreign policy of the first socialist state in the world. It paved the
way to a new type of international relations, unprecedented in the history
of mankind. Under the Decree on Land, all land owned by the landlords
was to be transferred to the people immediately and without any compensation.
Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia published after Revolution
On display next to the Decrees and mounted in a similar way, are the
decisions of the Congress on the formation of the Soviet Government-the
Council of People's Commissars-headed by Lenin as well as the "Declaration
of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia", in which the equality and sovereignty
of the peoples living in Russia is proclaimed, and their right to free
self-determination is confirmed.
V.I.Lenin. January 1918.
The concluding part of this exposition reveals the international character
of the Russian revolution and its influence on the entire course of world
Anatoly Lunacharsky. Lenin
and Russian revolution.
Vladimir Ilyich wrote the Decree on Land.
Alexandra Kollontai The
Fidel Castro October
Revolution and Cuban Revolution
and other historical documents and photos at the Defend
Lenin mausoleum! site.