MARXIST INTERNET ARCHIVE |  V. I. Lenin


V. I. Lenin

THE HANDICRAFT CENSUS OF 1894-95
IN PERM GUBERNIA
AND
GENERAL PROBLEMS
OF "HANDICRAFT" INDUSTRY

Written in exile in 1897
 
First published in 1898 in the
miscellany Economic Studies
and Essays
by Vladimir Ilyin
 

Published according to the
text in Economic Studies and
Essays
checked with the
text in the miscellany
The Agrarian Question
by Vl. Ilyin, 1908

From V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, 4th English Edition,
Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1972

First printing 1960
Second printing 1963
Third printing 1972

Vol. 2, pp. 355-458.

Translated from the Russian
Edited by George Hanna


Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo,
djr@cruzio.com (November 1997)

THE HANDICRAFT CENSUS OF 1894-95 IN PERM GUBERNIA AND
GENERAL PROBLEMS OF "HANDICRAFT" INDUSTRY[114]


  Article One   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .

357

I
II
III

General Data
The "Handicraftsmen" and Wage-Labour
"Communal-Labour Continuity"

358
369
381

  Article Two  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .

387

IV
V
 

The Agriculture of "Handicraftsmen"
Large and Small Establishments. -- The Incomes of
the Handicraftsmen

387
 
403

  Article Three.   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .

422

VI
VII
   VIII
 

What Is a Buyer-Up?
"Gratifying Features" of Handicraft Industry
The Narodnik Programme of Industrial Policy
 

422
439
445
 

NOTES


Groups
of
uyezds

Number of handicraftsmen

Percentage
of handi-
craftsmen

Number of persons,
both sexes, in families

Producing for
the market

Producing for
buyers-up

Producing for
private customers

In all

Mem-
bers
of
fami-
lies

Wage-
work-
ers

Total

Mem-
bers
of
fami-
lies

Wage-
work-
ers

Total

Mem-
bers
of
fami-
lies

Wage-
work-
ers

Total

Mem-
bers
of
fami-
lies

Wage-
work-
ers

Total

Produc-
ing for
the
market

Depen-
dent
(see
foot-
note)

With
own
farm

Farming
no land

Total

1) Five uyezds
   in which
   handicraft
   industry is
   most highly
   developed
2) Five uyezds
   in which
   handicraft
   industry is
   less highly
   developed
3) Two uyezds
   in which
   artisan
   production
   predominates


 
 
 
4,160
-- 
 
 
 
 
1,436
-- 
 
 
 
340
-- 


 
 
 
1,702
-- 
 
 
 
 
904
-- 
 
 
 
59
-- 


 
 
 
5,862
-- 
 
 
 
 
2,340
-- 
 
 
 
399
-- 


 
 
 
3,930  
27.4
 
 
 
 
259  
6.3
 
 
 
56  
2.7


 
 
 
1,397
-- 
 
 
 
 
158
-- 
 
 
 
-- 
-- 


 
 
 
5,327
-- 
 
 
 
 
417
-- 
 
 
 
56
-- 


 
 
 
2,501
-- 
 
 
 
 
1,077
-- 
 
 
 
1,499
-- 


 
 
 
623
--
 
 
 
 
252
--
 
 
 
88
--


 
 
 
3,124  
21.8
 
 
 
 
1,329  
32.5
 
 
 
1,587  
77.7


 
 
 
10,591
-- 
 
 
 
 
2,772
-- 
 
 
 
1,895
-- 


 
 
 
3,722  
26.0
 
 
 
 
1,314  
32.1
 
 
 
147  
7.2


 
 
 
14,313
100
 
 
 
 
4,086
100
 
 
 
147
100


 
 
 
78.2
--
 
 
 
 
67.5
--
 
 
 
22.3
--


 
 
 
53.4
--
 
 
 
 
38.4
--
 
 
 
9.9
--


 
 
 
21,320  
57.9
 
 
 
 
7,335  
66.2
 
 
 
5,998  
94.3


 
 
 
15,483  
42.1
 
 
 
 
3,740  
33.8
 
 
 
364  
5.7


 
 
 
36,803
100
 
 
 
 
11,075
100
 
 
 
6,362
100

In all

5,936
-- 

2,665
-- 

8,601
-- 

4,245  
20.8

1,555
-- 

5,800
-- 

5,077
-- 

963
--

6,040  
29.5

15,258
-- 

5,183  
25.3

20,441
100

70.5
--

46.1
--

34,653  
63.9

19,587  
36.1

54,240
100


   1) The first group consists of Shadrinsk, Kungur, Krasnoufimsk, Ekaterinburg and Osa uyezds; the second of Verkhoturye, Perm, Irbit, Okhansk
       and Cherdyn uyezds, and third, Solikamsk and Kamyshlov uyezds.
   2) By "dependent" handicraftsmen we mean: a) wage-workers and b) members of the handicraftman's family who produce for buyers-up.
   3) The number of handicraftsmen in the table differs from that given above since the figures for the uyezds given in the Sketch (pp. 30-31)
       differ from the appended table.
 

G
r
o
u
p

Sub-
group

No. of
estab.

Number of

Gross income
(rubles)

Net income
(rubles)

Wages
(rubles)

Net
income
and
wages
combined

No. of
hhlds
in
debt

Family
wrkrs

Wage-
wrkrs

Total

Total

Per
wrkr

Total

Per
family
wrkr

Total

Per
wage-
wrkr


 I 
 
I
 
I
 


1 . . .
 
2 . . .
 
3 . . .
 


2,239
 
2,841
 
1,016
 


4,122
 
4,249
 
1,878
 


1,726
 
712
 
586
 


5,848
 
4,961
 
2,464
 


758,493
 
383,441
 
236,361
 


129.7
 
77.3
 
95.9
 


204,004
 
186,719
 
91,916
 


49.5
 
43.9
 
48.9
 


74,558
 
34,937
 
20,535
 


43.2
 
49.0
 
35.0
 


278,563
 
221,656
 
112,451
 


255
 
93
 
3.4
 


Total for
Group I

 


6,096


10,249


3,024


13,273


1,378,235


103.8


482,639


47.1


130,030


43.0


612,669


622


II
 
II
 
II
 


1 . . .
 
2 . . .
 
3 . . .
 


959
 
595
 
1,320
 


1,672
 
876
 
2,231
 


738
 
272
 
852
 


2,410
 
1,148
 
3,083
 


605,509
 
178,916
 
492,347
 


251.2
 
155.8
 
159.7
 


220,713
 
90,203
 
229,108
 


132.0
 
102.9
 
102.7
 


45,949
 
18,404
 
43,289
 


62.2
 
67.6
 
50.8
 


266,662
 
108,607
 
272,397
 


176
 
51
 
262
 


Total for
Group II

 


2,874


4,779


1,862


6,641


1,276,772


192.2


540,024


113.0


107,642


57.8


647,666


489


Grand
total

 


8,970


15,028


4,886


19,914


2,655,007


133.3


1,022,663


68.0


237,672


48.6


1,260,335


1,111

Categories
of handi-
craftsmen
according
to size of
income

Number

Net income

Average income

Rough division of families

Fami-
lies

%

Rubles

%

Per
family

Per
family
worker
(ap-
prox.)

According to number of
family workers

According to number of
wage-workers

1

2

3

4

5 or more

0

1

2

3

4

5 or more


 a) Poor
 
 b) In strait-
    ened cir-
    cumstances
 
 c) Medium
 
 d) Well-to-do
 
 e) Affluent
 


2,376
 
 
 
3,494
 
2,016
 
320
 
158
 


28.4
 
 
 
41.8
 
24.1
 
3.8
 
1.9
 


77,900
 
 
 
262,050
 
362,150
 
123,200
 
129,850
 


8.2
 
 
 
27.4
 
37.9
 
12.9
 
13.6
 


32.7
 
 
 
75.0
 
179.6
 
385.0
 
821.8
 


 32.7
 
 
 
 50.0
 
 72.0
 
100.0
 
348.0
 


2,376
 
 
 
1,986
 
--
 
--
 
--
 


--
 
 
 
1,598
 
1,124
 
--
 
--
 


--
 
 
 
--
 
870
 
--
 
--
 


--
 
 
 
--
 
 22
 
253
 
--
 


--
 
 
 
--
 
 67
 
 76
 
--
 


--
 
 
 
--
 
--
 
--
 
82
 


--
 
 
 
--
 
1,359
 
--
 
--
 


--
 
 
 
--
 
392
 
 55
 
--
 


--
 
 
 
--
 
--
 
201
 
--
 


--
 
 
 
--
 
--
 
64
 
32
 


--
 
 
 
--
 
--
 
--
 
125
 

Total

8,364

100

955,150

100

114.2

 67.5

4,362

2,632

870

275

143

82

1,359

447

201

96

125



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Notes on
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    page 459


    NOTES

      [114] The article "The Handicraft Census of 1894-95 in Perm Gubernia and General Problems of 'Handicraft' Industry " was written by Lenin when in exile in Siberia in August and September 1897, not later than the 7th (19th) of the latter month. The material contained in this article was used by him in his book The Development of Capitalism in Russia.
        The article was first publlshed in 1898 in the miscellany Economic Studies and Essays, and reprinted in 1908 in the miscellany The Agrarian Question.    [p.355]

      [115] In 1889 the tsarist government introduced the administrative post of Zemsky Nachalnik in order to increase the power of the landlords over the peasants. The Zemsky Nachalniks were appointed from among the local landed nobility, and were given enormous power, not only administrative but also juridical, over the peasants, including the right to have peasants arrested and flogged.    [p.357]

      [116] Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. I, Moscow, 1958, p. 748.    [p.382]

      [117] Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. I, Moscow, 1958, p. 390.    [p.405]

      [118] By a decree of Peter I issued in 1721 merchant factory owners were given the right to purchase peasants for work in their factories. The feudal workers attached to such enterprises under the possessional right were called "possessional peasants."    [p.418]

    page 560

      [119] The Ministry of Finance Yearbook, Issue I, St. Petersburg, 1869, p 225.    [p.426]

      [120] The truck system -- the system of paying the workers wages in the shape of goods and foodstuffs from the employer's shop. This system was additional exploitation of the workers, and in Russia, was particularly widespread in the areas where handicraft industry flourished.    [p.428]

      [121] Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. I, Moscow, 1958, pp. 336-68.    [p.435]

      [122] Yuridichesky Vestnik (The Legal Messenger ) -- a monthly magazine, bourgeois-liberal in trend, published in Moscow from 1867 to 1892.    [p.437]

      [123] Lenin quotes from Heine's poem "Du hast Diamanten und Perlen . . ." ("Thou hast diamonds and pearls").    [p.441]

      [124] Dyelovoi Korrespondent (Business Correspondent ) -- a commercial and industrial newspaper that appeared in Ekaterinburg (now Sverdlovsk) from 1886 to 1898. Its columns contained informative items, announcements, articles on economic problems, and reviews.    [p.442]

      [125] Vol. X, part I, of the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire.    [p.443]

      [126] Permskiye Gubernskiye Vedomosti (Perm Gubernia Record ) -- an official paper that appeared weekly, and then daily, in Perm from 1838 to 1917.    [p.452]

      [127] Cf. I. I. Khemnitser's fable "The Metaphysician," in which the metaphysician is the embodiment of empty theorising.    [p.453]



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