Avanti! -- a daily and central organ of the Italian Socialist Party, was founded in December 1896. During the First World War its policy was not consistently internationalist, and it failed to break with the reformists. At present
[i.e., 1964 -- DJR] Avanti! is the central organ of the Italian Communist Party.
Albert -- a German Social-Democrat, who was an extreme social-chauvinist during the First World War. His name has come to denote social-chauvinism.
 Volksrecht (The People's Right
) -- a Swiss Social-Democratic daily, published in Zurich since 1898. During the First World War it published articles by Left Zimmerwaldists, including Lenin's articles "Twelve Brief Theses on H. Greulich's Defence of Fatherland Defence", "The Tasks of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party in the Russian Revolution" and "Tricks of the Republican Chauvinists".
 Bremer Bürger-Zeitung -- a daily published by the Bremen Social-Democrats from 1890 to 1919. In 1914-15 it was actually the organ of the Left Social-Democrats, and in 1916 it was taken over by the social-chauvinists.
 Vorwärts -- a daily, central organ of the German Social-Democrats, published in Berlin from 1876 by Wilhelm Liebknecht and other editors. Through this newspaper Engels fought against all manifestations of opportunism. In the latter half of the 1890s, following Engels's death, the newspaper systematically published articles
by opportunists, who had become dominant among German Social-Democrats and in the Second International. During the First World War (1914-18) the paper pursued a social-chauvinist policy, and after the October Socialist Revolution it became a mouthpiece of anti-Soviet propaganda. It ceased publication in 1933.
 Wiener Arbeiter-Zeitung -- a daily newspaper, central organ of the Austrian Social-Democratic Party, published in Vienna from 1889. During the First World War it took a social-chauvinist stand, Lenin describing it as the newspaper of "Vienna betrayers of socialism". Suppressed in 1934, it resumed publication in 1945 as the central organ of the Austrian Socialist Party.
 Hamburger Echo -- German Social-Democratic daily newspaper published from 1887; took a social-chauvinist stand during the First World War.
 l'Humanité -- a daily founded by Jean Jaur&eagrave;s in 1904 as the organ of the French Socialist Party. During the First World War the news paper became a mouthpiece of the extreme Right wing of the French Socialist Party, and pursued a social-chauvinist policy. Shortly after the split in the Socialist Party at the Tours Congress in December 1920, and the formation of the Communist Party, it became the organ of the Communist Party.
 The reference is to the appeal addressed to the German people by the French and Belgian delegations to the International Socialist Bureau, and published in
l'Humanité on September 6, 1914. It accused the German Government of pursuing predatory designs and the German troops of perpetrating atrocities in the occupied areas.
Vorwärts of September 10, 1964 [undoubtedly, 1914 --DJR] carried a protest by the German Social-Democratic Party's Executive against this appeal. This started off a press polemic between French and German social-chauvinists, each side seeking to justify its own government's participation in the war and put the blame on the other side.
 Lenin is referring to the resolution adopted by the Bolshevik group at its meeting in Berne, August 24-26 (September 6-8) 1914 (see this volume, pp. 15-19).
 Ever since its foundation in 1892, a sharp ideological struggle was conducted in the Italian Socialist Party between the opportunist and revolutionary wings, which differed on the question of the Party's policy and tactics. Under pressure from the Lefts, the most outspoken reformists (Bonomi, Bissolati), who supported the war and advocated collaboration with the government and the bourgeoisie, were expelled from the Party at its congress in Reggio Emilia in 1912. After the outbreak of the war, and before Italy's entry into it, the Party took an anti-war stand under the slogan: "Against the war, for neutrality!" In December 1914, the Party expelled a group of renegades (Mussolini and others) who defended the imperialist
policy of the bourgeoisie and favoured Italy's participation in the war. The Italian Socialists met in a joint conference with the Swiss Socialists at Lugano (1914) and took an active part in the international socialist conferences in Zimmerwald (1915) and Kienthal (1916). On the whole however, the Italian Socialist Party followed a Centrist policy. With Italy's entry into the war in May 1915, the Party renounced its anti-war stand and issued a slogan "neither participate in the war, nor sabotage it", which in practice meant support for the war.
 Die Neue Zeit (New Times
) -- theoretical journal of the German Social-Democratic Party published in Stuttgart from 1883 to 1923. Until October 1917 it was edited by Karl Kautsky and afterwards by Heinrich Cunow. Several works by Marx and Engels were first published in it. Engels helped the journal with advice, frequently criticising it for its deviations from Marxism. In the latter half of the nineties, following Engels's death, it systematically published articles by revisionists, including a series of Bernstein's articles called "Problems of Socialism", which launched a revisionist crusade against Marxism. During the First World War
Die Neue Zeit held a Centrist position, which in practice supported social-chauvinists.