The Eleventh Congress of the R.C.P.(B.) was held in Moscow on March 27-April 2, 1922.
It was convened a year after the Civil War ended and the country went over to peaceful economic devolopment. Its purpose was to sum up the results of the first year of the New Economic Policy and map out the further plan of socialist construction.
This was the last Party Congress in which Lenin participated. It was attended by 522 delegates with a casting vote and 165 delegates with a consultative voice. It discussed 1) the political report of the Central Committee, 2) the organisation report of the Central Committee, 3) the report of the Auditing Commission, 5) the report of thc Central Control Commission, 5) the report of the Communist International, 6) the trade unions, 7) the Red Army, 8) the financial policy, 9) the results of the Party purge and the accompanying strengthening of the Party ranks, and the co-reports on work with young people and on the press and propaganda, and 10) elections to the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission.
Lenin opened the Congress, delivered the political report of the R.C.P.(B.), a closing speech on the report and a speech closing the Congress.
Here Lenin refers to Matyas Rakosi's article "The New Economic Policy in Soviet Russia, which analyses Otto Bauer's pamphlet "Der neue Kurs" in Sowjetrussland ("The New Policy" in Soviet Russia), published in Vienna in 1921. Rakosi's article appeared in March 22 in the magazine Communist International, No. 20.
Communist International, organ of the Executive Committee of the Communist International, was published in Russian, German, French, English, Spanish and Chinese. The first issue was put out on May 1, 1919. Publication was stopped in June 1943 following the decision of the Presidium of the Comintern Exccutive Committee of May 15, 1943 to dissolve the Conmunist International.
Lenin has in mind the struggle waged abroad between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.
The Commission for Mixed Companies under the Council of Labour and Defence. This Commission was set up by a decision of the
Council of Labour and Defence on February 15, 1922. Its Chairman was Sokolnikov.
The Northern Timber Trust was a special administrative body of the timber industry of the North White Sea area. It was established in 1921.
Persuader-in-Chief was the nickname given by the soldiers to A. F. Kerensky, then the War and Navy Minister of the Provisional Government, for trying to persuade the soldiers to start an offensive when he toured the front in the summer of 1917. This attempt was made on orders from the Anglo-French imperialists and the Russian bourgeoisie.
Alexander Todorsky's book A Year With a Rifle and a Plough was published in 1918 by the Vesyegonsk Uyezd Executive Committee of Soviets, Tver Gubernia. Lenin speaks of this book in his article "A Little Picture in Illustration of Big Problems" (see present edition, Vol. 28, pp. 386-89).
The Central Verification Commission was set up on June 25, 1921 by the C.C., R.C.P.(B.) to direct the work of local verification commissions during the period of the Party purge. It consisted of five men.
At the Congress E. A. Preobrazhensky suggested that another organ of the Central Committee, an Economic Bureau, should be set up in addition to the Political Bureau and the Organising Bureau.
He accused the Central Committee of violating that part of the Party Programme dealing with bourgeois specialists, which stated that while creating a comradely atmosphere for the work of these people and showing concern for their material welfare no political concessions should be made to them and their counter-revolutionary impulses should be curbed. He alleged that the C.C. had made a political concession to the professors who had taken part in the strikes at institutions of higher learning in Moscow, Kazan, Petrograd and other cities in 1921-22. One of their basic demands was that the new Rules of Institutions of Higher Learning, drawn up by the Central Administration of Vocational and Political Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning and endorsed in the autumn of 1921 by the Council of People's Commissars, should be revised. They objected to the Workers Faculties at institutions of higher learning and to the procedure, laid down in the new Rules, of forming the boards of these institutions with the participation of representatives of the students, trade unions and the Central Administration of Vocational and Political Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning. They demanded that the latter right be transferred to the teachers' boards, and also made a number of economic demands. The Central Administration of Vocational and Political Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning, which was at that time
headed by Preobrazhensky, made the mistake of insisting on stern measures, including detention, against the striking instructors. The same stand was taken by the Communist cells and Workers' Faculties of some institutions of higher learning.
The Political Bureau of the C.C., R.C.P.(B.) took this question up several times. In view of the need for a flexible approach to specialists, it rectified the mistake of the Central Administration of Vocational and Political Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning, instructing A. V. Lunacharsky, M. N. Pokrovsky and other leading officials of the People's Commissariat of Public Education to examine the teachers' demands and, without making any fundamental, political concessions, to reach agreement with them. In February 1922 the Political Bureau set up a commission consisting of representatives of the People's Commissariat of Public Education, the Central Committee of the Trade Union of Public Education Workers and teachers to examine the economic position of institutions of higher learning and recognise the need or new Rules of Institutions of Higher Learning. After repeated conferences between the teachers and the commission, and a number of other measures that were taken by the People's Commissariat of Public Education on instructions from the Party C.C., the strikes were stopped.
J. V. Stalin was People's Commissar of Nationalities from the time the People's Commissariat of Nationalities was set up on October 26 (November 8), 1917 to its dissolution in July 1923. As from March 1919, he was also People's Commissar of State Control, and after the reorganisation of this Commissariat in February 1920, he was People's Commissar of Workers' and Peasants' Inspection until April 25, 1922.
N. Osinsky (V. V. Obolensky), speaking at the Congress, proposed that a "Cabinet" of Commissars be set up. His suggestion was that it should be formed not by the All-Russia Central Executive Cornmittee but unilaterally by its Chairman, who would be responsible to A.R.C.E.C.
While Osinsky spoke Lenin made the following entry in his note book: "(Set up a cabinet! ) one member should form the Cabinet" (Lenin Miscellany XIII, 1930, p. 22).
At the Congress Y. Larin alleged that an authorised body of the State Planning Commission had proposed that at the Genoa Conference the Soviet delegation should offer to lease (as a concession) three-quarters of the country's railways, the Petrograd-Rybinsk waterway, the iron and steel plants in the Urals with a railway network of 3,000 versts, and the power engineering industry.
This allegation was refuted by G. M. Krzhizhanovsky.
The Debating Club at the Moscow Committee of the R.C.P.(B.) was organised in August 1921. Similar clubs were opened in various parts of Moscow. They debated Party and Soviet development, the
Soviet Republic's economic policy and other problems. However, the Debating Club soon began to be used by opposition groups as a forum for propagandising their views.
On February 20,1922, the Central Committee of the R.C.P.(B.) examined the question of the Debating Club on the basis of a report from the Central Control Commission and instructed the Moscow Committee to reconsider the composition of the Club's board and to organise its work in conformity with the Party's tasks.
See present volume, pp. 237-42. [Transcriber's Note: See Lenin's communication "To Comrade Molotov for the Members of the Politcal Bureau Re Comrade Preobrazhensky's Theses." -- DJR]
This anti-Party statement was sent on February 26, 1922 to the Presidium of the Extended Plenary Meeting of the Comintern Executive Committee by a group of members of the former Workers' Opposition (A. G. Shlyapnikov, S. P. Medvedyev, A. M. Kollontai, G. I. Myasnikov and others, which continued to exist as a faction despite the resolution "On Party Unity" passed by the Tenth Congress of the R.C.P.(B.). The statement claimed that "matters were unsatisfactory with regard to a united front in our country", that the leading Party bodies were ignoring the requirements and interests of the workers and that a split was impending in the Party.
The Comintern Executive Committee appointed a commission consisting of Clara Zetkin, Marcel Cachin, Jacob Friis, Vasil Kolarov, Karl Krejbich, Umberto Terracini and Arthur McManus to look into the Statement of the Twenty-Two. On March 4, on the basis of the report of this commission, a Plenary Meeting of the Comintern Executive Committee, with four abstentions, passed a resolution rejecting the accusations in the statement and censured the stand of the twenty-two as running counter to the decisions of the Tenth Congress of the R.C.P.(B.).
The Eleventh Congress of the R.C.P.(B.) appointed a commission of 19 persons to examine the Statement of the Twenty Two. On April 2, on the basis of the report of this commission, a closed session of the Congress adopted a special resolution "On Certain Members of the Former Workers' Opposition", in which it stigmatised the anti-Party behaviour of members of the Workers' Opposition group, and warned the leaders of the group that they would be expelled from the Party if they renewed their factional activity.
On a motion proposed by Lenin, the joint sitting of the Plenary Meeting of the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission on August 9, 1921, exmined the question of expelling A. Shlyapnikov from the Central Committee and from the Party for anti-Party activity.
In Motovilikha District, Perm Gubernia, G. I. Myasnikov organised an anti-Party group which opposed the Party's policy. On July 29, 1921, the Organising Bureau of the C.C., R.C.P.(B.)
examined Myasnikov's statements in the Perm organisation, found that they were directed against the Party and set up a commission to investigate Myasnikov's activities. On August 22, acting on the basis of the report of this commission, the Organising Bureau found Myasnikov's theses incompatible with Party interests, prohibited him from speaking of his theses at official Party meetings, recalled him from the Perm organisation and placed him at the disposal of the Central Committee. Myasnikov disobeyed the Central Committee, returned to Motovilikha and continued his anti-Party activities. At the same time, he tried to organise an anti-Party group in Petrograd. After investigating his activities, the C.C., R.C.P.(B.) commission proposed that he should be expelled from tho Party for repeated violations of Party discipline and for organising a special anti-Party group in defiance of the Tenth Party Congress decision on Party unity. On February 20, 1922, the Political Bureau approved the commission's decision on Myasnikov's expulsion from the Party, with the provision that he should have the right to apply for Party membership in a year (see Eleventh Congress of the R.C.P.(B.). Verbatim Report, Moscow, 1961, pp. 748-49).
See present edition, Vol. 32, pp. 504-09.