The Chemnitz Congress of the German Social-Democratic Party, held on September 15-21, 1912, passed a resotution "On Imperialism", which said that the imperialist states were pursuing a policy of shameless plunder and annexations" and called upon the party "to fight imperialism with greater energy".
During World War I leaders of the Second International treacherously violated the decisions of the international socialist congresses, in particular, those adopted in Chemnitz.
 On Struvism, see this volume, pp.
 Zhizn (Life
) -- a newspaper of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, published between March 1915 and January 1916, first in Paris and later in Geneva taking the place of newspaper
Mysl which was closed down in 1915.
 The man in a muffler -- a character in Chekhov's story of the same name, typifying a narrow-minded philistine who is afraid of innovations and any initiative.
 The quotation is from Goethe.
 The Bulygin Duma -- a consultative Duma, the laws for the elections and convocation of which were drafted by a commission headed by A. G. Bulygin, Minister of the Interior, and published on August 6 (19),1905. The Bolsheviks boycotted the Bulygin Duma, and the government failed to convene it. The Duma was swept away by the October general political strike.
 Le Socialisme -- a journal edited and published in Paris between 1907 and June 1914 by the French socialist Jules Guesde.
 Pravdism, i.e., Bolshevism (from the name of the Bolshevik
newspaper Pravda ).
 Novo Vreme (New Times
) -- a scientific and theoretical journal of the revolutionary wing of the Bulgarian Social-Democratic Party (Tesnyaki), founded by Dimitr Blagoyev in 1897 in Plovdiv and later published in Sofia. In 1903 the journal became the organ of the Bulgarian Workers' Social-Democratic Party (Tesnyaki
). Its publication ceased in February 1916 but was resumed in 1919. The editor was Dimitr Blagoyev, its contributors including Georgiyev, Kirkov, Kabakchiev, Kolarov and Petrov. In 1923 the journal was suppressed by the Bulgarian reactionary government. Since 1947
Novo Vreme -- the monthly theoretical organ of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party.
 This refers to the manifesto "The Chief Enemy Is in Our Own Country", written by Karl Liebknecht.
 Preussische Jahrbücher -- a monthly of a conservative trend, organ of the German capitalists and landownors, published in Berlin from 1858 to 1935.
 Gaponade -- derived from the name of Gapon, a priest of the Orthodox Church. On the eve of the first Russian revolution he founded the Assembly of Russian Factory Workers, with the aim of distracting the workers from the revolutionary struggle. In so doing he acted on instructions from the tsarist secret police. On January 9, 1905, Gapon, taking advantage of the growing unrest, provoked the workers into demonstrating before the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg for the purpose of presenting a petition to the tsar. By order of Nicholas II, troops fired at the unarmed demonstrators. This act destroyed the naïve faith of workers throughout the country in the tsar, and served as the starting-point of the first Russian revolution. The political consciousness of the proletariat was aroused and a wave of protest strikes swept Russia.
 On Economism, see this volume, pp. 331-32.
 Rabochaya Mysl (Workers' Thought
) -- an Economists' paper, published from 1897 to 1902. In his Iskra articles and his book
What Is To Be Done? Lenin criticised
Rabochaya Mysl views as a Russian variety of international opportunism.
 Rabocheye Dyelo (The Workers' Cause
) -- a journal of the Economists, organ of the Union of Russian Social-Democrats Abroad. It was published at irregular intervals in Geneva from 1899 to 1902 Lenin criticised the views voiced by the Rabocheye Dyelo group, in a number of articles published in
Iskra and in his book What Is To Be Done?