The Agrarian Question in Russia Towards the Close of the Nineteenth Century was written by Lenin in 1908 for an encyclopaedic dictionary issued by Granat Bros. Ltd., but was not published for censorship reasons. This work first appeared in Moscow in 1918 as a separate booklet issued by
Zhizn i Znaniye Publishers.
In writing this booklet Lenin made use of statistical returns and tables on the agrarian question contained in his works
The Development of Capitalism in Russia and The Agrarian Programme of Social-Democracy in the First Russian Reuolution, 1905-07 (see present edition, Vol. 3, p. 21-607 and Vol. 13, pp. 217-429).
 This refers to the book
Statistics of Landownership for 1905. Returns for 50 Gubernias of European Russia. Published by the Central Statistical Committee of the Ministry of the Interior, St Petersburg, 1907.
 This refers to N. A. Rubakin's article "Our Ruling Bureaucracy in Figures", published in the newspaper
Syn Otechestva (Son of the Fatherland ) No. 54, April 20 (May 3), 1905.
 The categories of peasants here listed by Lenin existed in tsarist Russia as survivals of feudal and semi-feudal relations.
Chinsh peasants -- peasants who enjoyed the right of chinsh -- the right of perpetual inheritance of the land -- and paid almost invariable quit-rent, called chinsh. This form of relations existed mainly in Poland, Lithuania, Byelorussia, and parts of the Ukraine bordering on the Black Sea.
Rezeshi -- small land proprietors in Moldavia and Bessarabia.
Teptyars -- neo-Bashkirs, settlers from the Urals and the Volga region.
 This refers to
The Collection of Statistical Data for Saratov Gubernia. Vol. I,
Saratov Uyezd. Saratov, published by the Saratov Gubernia Zemstvo, 1883.
 Gift-land peasants -- former serfs who, at the time of the Reform of 1861, received from their landlords as a gift (without having to pay redemption money) miserable allotments amounting to a quarter of the "top" or "statutory" allotment established by law for the given locality. All the rest of the lands that had constituted the peasant allotments before the Reform were seized by the landlord who kept his "gift-land peagants", forcibly dispossessed of their
land in a state of economic bondage even after serfdom was abolished.
Full owners -- former landlords' peasants who had redeemed their allotments before the specified date and had the right to own the land as private property. These were a comparatively small category of the most well-to-do element in the countryside.
State peasants with communal holdings had no private property rights on the land, which they used on the basis of communal landownership.
State peasants with quarter holdings -- descendants of former servicemen (children of the boyars, Cossacks, streltsi, dragoons, soldiers, etc.) who guarded the southern and south-eastern borderlands of Muscovy. The Tsar of M uscovy rewarded them for their services with an endowment of a
quarter lot (half a dessiatine) of land on which they settled in "single households" (hence their name
odnodvortsi ). They enjoyed the right of communal landownership as well as their quarter holdings.
These odnodvortsi, being freemen, for a long time held an intermediate position between the nobles and the peasants, and had the right to acquire serfs. Under Peter the Great they were turned into state peasants and their land became the property of the state. Actually, however, the state peasants with quarter holdings disposed of their lands as their own private property. In this they differed from the state peasants with communal holdings, who had no right to buy, sell or bequeath their land.
State peasants who formerly were landlords' serfs -- a category of peasants purchased by the state from private owners or presented to the state, etc. Although regarded as state peasants, they enjoyed fewer rights. They were given equal rights in 1859, on the eve of the Reform of 1861, but certain distinctions still remained.
Free tillers -- a category of peasants freed from serfdom under the law of February 20, 1803 which allowed landlords to give the peasants their freedom with land on the landlords' own terms.
 The village commune in Russia was the communal form of peasant use of the land, characterised by compulsory crop rotation, and undivided woods and pastures. Its principal features were collective liability (compulsory collective responsibility of the peasants for making their payments in full and on time, and the performance of various services to the state and the landlords), the regular reallotment of the land with no right to refuse the allotment given, the prohibition of its purchase and sale.
The landlords and the tsarist government used the village commune to intensify feudal oppression and to squeeze redemption payments and taxes out of the people.
 This refers to the abolition of serfdom in Russia in 1861.
 This refers to the book:
Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reiches und der angränzenden Länder Asiens. Auf Kosten der Kai-
serl. Akademie der Wissenschaften herausgegeben von K. E. Baer und Helmersen, St. Petersburg, 1845.
 The full title of the book is
Freely Hired Labour on Private Landowner Farms and the Movement of Workers According to a Statistical and Economic Survey of Agriculture and Industry in European Russia. Compiled by S. A. Korolenko, St. Petersburg, 1892 (Agricultural and Statistical Information Based on Material Obtained from Farmers, Issue V).
 Skopshchina -- the name given in the southern parts of Russia to a type of rent in kind on terms of bondage, the tenant paying the landlord a share of the crop
s kopny (per corn-shock), and usually fulfilling miscellaneous labour services in addition.
 Wild landlord -- a type of landlord described by Saltykov-Shchedrin in his satirical fairy-tale published in English under the title of "Wild Gentleman".
 Lenin refers to the following books:
1) V. Orlov, Forms of Peasant Landownership in Moscow Gubernia, Moscow, published by Moscow Gubernia Zemstvo, 1879 (Statistical Returns for Moscow Gubernia, Vol. 4, Issue I);
2) V. Trirogov, The Village Commune and the Poll-Tax (Collected Investigations
), St. Petersburg, 1882;
3) Johannes Keussler, Zur Geschichte und Kritik des bäuerlichen Gemeindebesitzes in Russland, Teil 1-3, 1876-87;
4) V. V., The Peasant Commune (cf. Results of Economic Investigation of Russia According to Zemstvo Statistical Data, Vol. I, Moscow, 1892).
V. V. -- pseudonym of V. P. Vorontsov, an ideologue of liberal Narodism of the eighties and nineties of the nineteenth century.
 Registered souls -- the male population of feudal Russia who were subject to the poll-tax (chiefly peasants and urban petty bourgeois), for which purpose special censuses ("registrations") were held beginning from 1718. The last, tenth, "registration" was made in 1857-59. Redistribution of the land within the village communes took place in a number of districts on the basis of these registration lists.
 Severny Vestnik (Northern Herald
) -- a literary, scientific, and political journal of a liberal trend, published in St. Petersburg from 1885 to 1898. In its early years the journal published articles by the Narodniks N. K. Mikhailovsky, S. N. Yuzhakov, V. P. Vorontsov, S. N. Krivenko, and others. From 1891 the journal virtually became the organ of the Russian symbolists and decadents and preached idealism and mysticism.
 This refers to N. Karyshev's book
Peasant Rentings of Non-Allotment Land (cf. Results of the Economic Investigation of Russia According to Zemstvo Statistical Data, Vol. II, Dorpat, 1892).
 Nik.-on -- pseudonym of N. F. Danielson, an ideologue of liberal Narodism of the eighties and nineties of the nineteenth century.
 Winter hiring -- the hiring of peasants for summer work by landlords and kulaks in the winter, when the peasants were badly in need of money and forced to accept extortionate terms.
 This refers to
Evaluation Returns on Peasant Landownership in Zemlyansk, Zadonsk,
Korotoyak and Nizhnedevitsk Uyezds. Supplement to vols. III, IV, V and VI of
Statistical Returns for Voronezh Gubernia, Voronezh, published by the Voronezh Gubernia Zemstvo, 1889.
 D. N. Zhbankov's sketch "Women's Country" was published in the book
Data for Statistics of Kostroma Gubernia, Issue 8, Kostroma, published by the Kostroma Gubernia Statistical Committee, 1891.
 Vestnik Yevropy (European Messenger
) -- a monthly journal published in St. Petersburg from 1866 to the summer of 1918. It presented the views of the Russian liberal bourgeoisie, and beginning with the nineties waged a systematic struggle against Marxism.
 These data are given in the book
Combined Returns for Samara Gubernia, Vol. 8, Issue 1, Samara, published by the Samara Gubernia Zemstvo, 1892.
 This refers to M. S. Uvarov's article "The Influence of Industry Employing Migratory Workers on the Sanitary Conditions of Russia" published in
Vestnik Obshchestvennoi Gigieny, Sudebnoi i Prakticheskoi Meditsiny (Journal of Public Hygiene and Forensic and Practical Medicine
) in July 1896.
 Lenin is quoting figures from the article "Peasant Industries in European Russia" by N. F. Rudnev, published in
Symposium of the Saratov Zemstvo, Nos. 6 and 11, 1894.
 This refers to the book
Agricultural Labourers and the Organisation of Sanitary Supervision over Them in Kherson Gubernia, by N. I. Tezyakov, Kherson, published by the Kherson Gubernia Zemstvo Board, 1896.
 Lenin quotes figures from N. A. Blagoveshchensky's book
Combined Zemstvo House-to-House Census Economic Returns. Vol. I.
Peasant Farming, Moscow, 1898.
 Cf. K. Marx,
The Poverty of Philosophy, Moscow, pp. 173-87.
 Gesindeordnung -- "Regulation for Servants", 1854. One of numerous laws in Prussia depriving farm labourers of all civil rights. Under this law the mere attempt of labourers to organise a strike was punishable with imprisonment.