Vperyod (Forward
) -- an illegal Bolshevik weekly, published in Geneva from December 22, 1904 (January 4, 1905) to May 5 (18), 1905. Eighteen issues were put out. The newspaper's organiser manager, and ideological guide was Lenin. Other members of the editorial board were V. V. Vorovsky, M. S. Olminsky and A. V. Lunacharsky.
The outstanding role which the newspaper played in combating Menshevism, restoring partyism, and formulating and elucidating the tactical issues posed by the rising revolution was acknowledged in a special resolution of the Third Party Congress, which recorded a vote of thanks to the editorial board.
 Partiiniye Izvestia (Party News
) -- a newspaper, the organ of the United Central Committee of the R.S.D.L.P., published illegally in
St. Petersburg on the eve of the Fourth (Unity) Congress of the Party. Two issues were put out: on February 7 (20) and March 20 (April 2), 1906. The editorial board was set up on a parity basis comprising editors from the Bolshevik newspaper
Proletary and from the Menshevik newspaper the new Iskra. Bolshevik members of the editorial board, among others, were Lenin and Lunachnrsky. After the Fourth Congress of the Party
Partiiniye Izvestia closed down.
 "The movement is everything, the ultimate aim -- nothing" -- the formula advanced by E. Bernstein, leader of the extreme opportunist wing of the German Social-Democrats and the Second International, and the theoretician of revisionism and reformism.
 Narodnaya Duma (People's Duma
) -- a Menshevik daily published in St. Petersburg in March-April 1907.
 This refers lo the resolution on the political situation within the country and the tasks of the Party, adopted at the Sixth Congress of the Social-Democrats of Poland and Lithuania, held in Praga (a suburb of Warsaw) in December 1908.
The Congress repelled liquidationist tendencies and confirmed that the chief task of Social-Democracy was to fight for the conquest of political power by the proletariat with the help of the revolutionary peasantry.
 All-Russian Peasunt Union -- a revolutionary-democratic organisation founded in 1905. Its programme and tactics were elaborated at its first and second congresses held in Moscow in August and November 1905. The Union demanded political liberty and the immediate convocation of a constituent assembly. It adopted the tactics of boycott of the First Duma. Its agrarian programme called for the abolition of private landownership and for the transfer of monastery, church, crown and state lands to the peasants without compensation. The Union pursued a vacillating middle-of-the-road policy. While demanding abolition of the landed estates, it agreed to partial compensation for the landlords. The Peasant Union was subjected to police persecutions from the moment it came into existence. It finally broke up at the beginning of 1907.
 The Bund (The General Jewish Workers' Union of Lithuania,
Poland, and Russia ) was formed by a founding congress of Jewish Social-Democratic groups held in Vilna in 1897; it was an association mainly of semi-proletarian Jewish artisans in the western regions of Russin. The Bund joined the R.S.D.L.P. at the First Congress (1898) "as an autonomous organisation, independent only in respect of questions affecting the Jewish proletariat specifically". (The C.P.S.U. in Resolutions and Decisions of Its Congresses,
Conferences and Plenany Meetings of the Central Committee, Moscow, 1954, Part I, p. 14, Russ. ed.)
The Bund brought nationalism and separatism into the working-class movement of Russia. Its Fourth Coneress, held in April 1901 resolved to alter the organisational relations with the R.S.D.L.P. established by the latter's First Congress. The resolution said that the Congress regarded the R.S.D.L.P. as a federation of national organisations and that the Bund should be treated as a member of that federation.
After the Second Congress of the R.S.D.L.P. had rejected its demand that it be recognised as the sole representative of the Jewish proletariat, the Bund left the Party. In 1906 the Bund reentered the R.S.D.L.P. on the basis of a resolution of the Fourth (Unity) Congress.
Within the R.S.D.L.P. the Bundists persistently supported the opportunist wing of the Party (the Economists, Mensheviks and Liquidators) and opposed the Bolsheviks and Bolshevism. The Bund countered the Bolsheviks' programmatic demand for the right of nations to self-determination by a demand for cultural national autouomy.
During the period of the Stolypin reaction (1907-10), it adopted a liquidationist stand and was active in forming the August anti-Party bloc. During the First World War (1914-18) it adopted the position of the social-chauvinists. In 1917 it supported the bourgeois Provisional Government and fought on the side of the enemies of the October Socialist Revolution. In the years of foreign military intervention and civil war the Bund leadership joined forces with the counter-revolution. At the same time a change was taking place among the rank and file of the Bund in favour of collaboration with the Soviet power. In March 1921 the Blllld decide to dissolve itself, and some of its members joined the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) according to general procedure.
 Sotsial-Demokrat (Social-Democrat
) -- an illegal newspaper, organ of the Central Committee of the R.S.D.L.P., published in St. Petersburg from September 17 (30) to November 18 (December 1). 1906. Seven issues were put out. The editorial board was controlled by the Mensheviks.
 Die Neue Rheinische Zeitung was published in Cologne from June 1, 1848 to May 19, 1849 under the management of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. The Editor-in-Chief was Marx. Under the blows of reaction the newspaper closed down after issue No. 301.
Here Lenin quotes from the articles by K. Marx and F. Engels "Die Berliner Debatte über die Revolution" and "Der Gesetzenwurf über die Aufhebung der Feudallasten" published in
Die Neuet Rheinische Zeitung on June 14 and July 30, 1848.
 See K. Marx and F. Engels,
Selected Works, Vol. II, Moscow, 1958, pp. 104-05.