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Charles
Bettelheim

Class
Struggles
in the
USSR

Second Period: 1923-1930
[Section 2 -- Part 2]


NOTE: The translation of this book into English has given the author the opportunity to check a number of his references and, as a result, to revise parts of the text.

© 1978 by Monthly Review Press

Translated by Brian Pearce  
Originally published as
Les Luttes de classes en URSS
© 1977 by Maspero/Seuil, Paris, France


Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo, djr@marx2mao.org (February 2001)

  Contents


[ Section 2 ]



Part 2.
 
 
 
 


The village during the NEP
period. Differentiation and class
struggles. Agricultural policy and
transformation of social relations
in agriculture


 
 
 
 
83

1.
 

The social conditions of immediate
production during the NEP period


85

2.
 
 
 

The economic and social conditions
governing the reproduction and
transformation of production relation
agriculture during the NEP


 
 
135

3.
 
 

The reproduction and transformation of
ideological and political relations in the
rural areas


 
163


      Key to abbreviations, initials, and Russian   words used in the text

    Artel

    A particular form of producers' cooperative

    Cadet party

    The Constitutional Democratic Party

    CLD

    See STO

    Cheka

    Extraordinary Commission (political police)

    Glavk
     
     

    One of the chief directorates in the Supreme Council of the National Economy or in a people's commissariat

    Gosplan

    State Planning Commission

    GPU

    State Political Administration (political police)

    Kulak
     
     

    A rich peasant, often involved in capitalist activities of one kind or another, such as hiring out agricultural machinery, trade, moneylending, etc.

    Mir

    The village community

    Narkomtrud

    People's Commissariat of Labor

    NEP

    New Economic Policy

    NKhSSSRv
     

    National Economy of the USSR in (a certain year or period)

    NKVD

    People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs

    OGPU
     

    Unified State Political Administration (political police)

    Orgburo

    Organization Bureau of the Bolshevik Party

    Politburo

    Political Bureau of the Bolshevik Party

    Rabfak

    Workers' Faculty

    Rabkrin

    See RKI

    RCP(B)

    Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik): official

     


    name of the Bolshevik Party, adopted by the Seventh Party Congress in March 1918

    RKI

    Workers' and Peasants' Inspection

    RSDLP

    Russian Social Democratic Labor Party

    RSDLP(B)

    Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (Bolshevik)

    RSFSR

    Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic

    Skhod

    General assembly of a village

    Sovkhoz

    State farm

    Sovnarkhoz

    Regional Economic Council

    Sovnarkom

    Council of People's Commissars

    SR

    Socialist Revolutionary

    STO

    Council of Labor and Defense

    Uchraspred
     
     

    Department in the Bolshevik Party responsible for registering the members and assigning them to different tasks

    Uyezd

    County

    Volost

    Rural district

    VSNKh

    Supreme Economic Council

    VTsIK
     

    All-Russia Central Executive Committee (organ derived from the Congress of soviets)

    Zemstvo
     

    Administrative body in country areas before the Revolution



   Part 2
     The village during the NEP period.
     Differentiation and class struggles.
     Agricultural policy and transformation
     of social relations in agriculture

    The analyses offered in the following pages relate to the economic and social structure of the Soviet countryside toward the end of the NEP. Their purpose is to throw light on the conditions governing the articulation of class relations and class struggles in the villages with agricultural policy and to show how these relations and struggles led to the final crisis of the NEP.

    It was the articulation of class struggles with agricultural policy that determined the changes which the Soviet countryside underwent between 1924 and 1929. These changes cannot be seen as an "autonomous process," dominated exclusively by some ineluctable "internal necessity." They cannot be divorced from the policy followed toward the peasantry and its various strata. In its turn, this policy needs to be related to the development of the contradictions within the urban sector and the way with which these were dealt -- problems that will be considered later.