Antonio Gramsci 1891-1937

Antonio Gramsci Archive

An Antonio Gramsci Reader


selected writings,
Edited by David Forgacs
Schocken Books New York

Published in the United States by Schocken Books Inc., New York. Distributed by Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc., New York. This compilation originally published in Great Britain as A Gramsci Reader by Lawrence and Wishart, London, in 1988.

Translations from Selections from Prison Notebooks, © Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, 1971; from Selections from Political Writings (1910-1920), © Lawrence and Wishart, 1977; from Selections from Political Writings (1921-1926), © Quintin Hoare, 1978; from Selections from Cultural Writings, © Lawrence and Wishart, 1985.

HTML Mark-up by Andy Blunden, December 2002.
Proofed and corrected by Kevin Goins, 2007.


Part One: Writings 1916-1926

I Socialism and Marxism 1917-1918

1 Discipline
2 The Revolution against Capital
3 Our Marx
4 Class Intransigence and Italian History
5 Utopia

II Working-Class Education and Culture

1 Socialism and Culture
2 Schools of Labour
3 Men or Machines?
4 The Popular University
5 Illiteracy
6 The Problem of the School
7 (Questions of Culture]
8 Marinetti the Revolutionary?

III Factory Councils and Socialist Democracy

1 Workers’ Democracy
2 Conquest of the State
3 To the Workshop Delegates of the Fiat Centro and Brevetti Plants
4 Unions and Councils
5 Red Sunday
6 Political Capacity
7 Those Mainly Responsible
8 Once again on the Organic Capacities of the Working Class

IV Communism 1919-24

1 The War in the Colonies
2 Workers and Peasants
3 The Livorno Congress
4 Parties and Masses
5 What the Relations Should Be Between the PCdI and the Comintern
6 [Letter to Togliatti, Terracini and Others]

V Fascist Reaction and Communist Strategy 1924-1926

1 The Crisis of the Middle Classes
2 The Italian Situtation and the Tasks of the PCdl (Lyons Theses)
3 Letter to the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party
4 Some Aspects of the Southern Question

Part Two: Prison Writings 1929-1935

VI Hegemony, Relations of Force, Historical Bloc

1 Structure and Superstructure [i]
2 Structure and Superstructure [ii]
3 Structure and Superstructures [iii]
4 [The Concept of ‘Historical Bloc’]
5 [Ethico-Political History]
6 [Ethico-Political History and Hegemony]
7 [Political Ideologies]
8 Ideologies
9 Validity of Ideologies
10 Analysis of Situations: Relations of Force
11 Some Theoretical and Practical Aspects of ‘Economism’ [& in The Modern Prince]
12 Observations on Certain Aspects of the Structure of Political Parties in Periods of Organic Crisis

VII The Art and Science of Politics

1 [War of Position and War of Manoeuvre]
2 War of Position and War of Manoeuvre or Frontal War
3 Transition from the War of Manoeuvre (and from Frontal Attack) to the War of Position in the Political Field as Well
4 [Internationalism and National Policy]
5 Question of the ‘Collective Man’ or ‘Social Conformism’
6 Concept of State
7 Ethical or Cultural State
8 State as Gendarme-Nightwatchman, etc.
9 The State as Veilleur de Nuit
10 Economic-Corporate Phase of the State
11 Statolatry
12 [The Political Party as Modern ‘Prince’]
13 Fetishism

VIII Passive Revolution, Caesarism, Fascism

1 The Problem of Political Leadership in the Formation and Development of the Modern State in Italy
2 Notes on French National Life
3 The Concept of ‘Passive Revolution’ [i]
4 [The Concept of Passive Revolution ii]
5 [The Concept of Passive Revolution iii]
6 [Fascism as Passive Revolution: First Version]
7 [Fascism as Passive Revolution: Second Version]
8 Agitation and Propaganda
9 Caesarism
10 Caesarism and ‘Catastrophic’ Equilibrium of Politico-Social Forces

IX Americanism and Fordism

1 Rationalization of the Demographic Composition of Europe
2 Some Aspects of the Sexual Question
3 Financial Autarky and Industry
4 ‘Animality’ and Industrialism
5 Rationalization of Production and Work
6 Taylorism and the Mechanization of the Worker
7 [Babbitt]
8 Babbitt Again
9 Notes on American Culture

X Intellectuals and Education

1 [Intellectuals]
2 Observations on the School: In Search of the Educational Principle
3 [Intellectuals and Non-Intellectuals]

XI Philosophy, Common Sense, Language and Folklore

1 Notes for an Introduction and an Approach to the Study of Philosophy in the History of Culture
    i Some preliminary reference points
    ii Observations and critical notes on an attempt at a ‘Popular Manual of Sociology’
2 Language, Languages, Common Sense
3 [‘Knowledge’ and ‘Feeling’]
4 [The Philosophy of Praxis and ‘Intellectual and Moral Reformation’]
5 How Many Forms of Grammar Can There Be?
6 Sources of Diffusion of Linguistic Innovations in the Tradition and of a National Linguistic Conformism in the Broad National Masses
7 Historical and Normative Grammars
8 Grammar and Technique
9 Observations on Folklore

XII Popular Culture

1 Concept of ‘National-Popular’
2 Various Types of Popular Novel
3 The Operatic Conception of Life
4 Popular Literature. Operatic Taste
5 Oratory, Conversation, Culture

XIII Journalism

1 Ideological Material
2 Dilettantism and Discipline
3 [Integral Journalism]
4 Types of Periodical

XIV Art and the Struggle for a New Civilization

1 Art and the Struggle for a New Civilization
2 Art and Culture
3 Literary Criticism
4 Criteria of Literary Criticism
5 Sincerity (or Spontaneity) and Discipline
6 [‘Functional’ Literature]